I gave an Outdated World postmortem at GDC 2022, which is obtainable on YouTube:
Nonetheless, I totally scripted the speak forward of time, so I made a decision it might be price taking the time to put up the slides on-line, in three elements to have mercy in your browser.
Welcome to My Elephant within the Room: An Outdated World Design Postmortem.
Listed below are the video games that I’ve labored on. Spoiler alert: Civilization 3 and 4 are going to return up rather a lot within the presentation…
I additionally do a podcast the place I interview recreation designers about why they make video games, so test it out you probably have time for 4-hour interviews.
Outdated World is a 4X set in classical antiquity, with a give attention to characters. The best pitch is think about a recreation like Civ however you’re truly Alexander the Nice, every flip you get a yr older, and you’ll ultimately die, and considered one of your kids will take over.
I’ve already talked about the world Civilization plenty of occasions, so let’s simply speak in regards to the elephant within the room. There may be not a single preview or overview of Outdated World that doesn’t point out Civ someplace within the opening paragraph. Each Twitch stream, you’ll all the time see a “is that this the brand new Civ?” someplace within the feedback.
Extra personally, right here is my very own elephant within the room, Civ3 and Civ4. So, why ought to I am going again to make a historic, tile-based 4X recreation? A Civ-like, so to talk.
Certainly, Civ4 was a finest case situation for a younger recreation designer. It’s the #18 PC recreation of all-time on Metacritic – and the primary technique recreation this century.
It in some way even gained a Grammy award, for Child Yetu, by my faculty roommate Christopher Tin, which was undoubtedly not even on the radar once we developed the sport. At any charge, Civ 4 was the primary recreation I used to be the lead designer of. Frankly, it’s all downhill from right here.
(Editor’s Observe: Later in 2022, Outdated World truly was nominated for a Grammy!)
So, earlier than I clarify why I made Outdated World, let’s speak somewhat about what the sport is and the way it was developed.
Right here is the very first pitch display screen for Outdated World. It was rather a lot less complicated at first – on this picture, it was conceived of as a pill recreation, with the orders system and a useful resource market however with out characters.
Listed below are some display screen’s from the sport’s prototyping section. The earliest playable model, within the upper-right, was multiplayer solely, simply as I had achieved with Civ 4, and you’ll see that by 2018, we had began so as to add characters to the sport.
Listed below are photographs main as much as launch. There’s rather a lot to digest right here, however I simply wished to present a way of how the feel and appear of the sport modified, year-by-year.
So, now let’s speak about why I made Outdated World. Why return to revisit video games that stand effectively on their very own and, furthermore, are a part of a franchise that’s persevering with to succeed and develop.
One good motive is to know your inheritance, to reexamine it, to search for concepts which had been baked into the very earliest model of the sport and see if altering them may rework the expertise. A superb instance is what I’ll name “Each Unit Strikes” which is how Civ has all the time labored. Each unit will get to maneuver as soon as per flip.
Civ inherited this mechanic straight from Empire, a recreation from the 80s which had a lot of the identical tile-based, turn-based fight as Civ however with out the scope of all human historical past.
And Empire received Each Unit Strikes from wargames, which you’ll be able to see right here within the type of a monster model of the Jap entrance. The standard solution to play a hex-based wargame was for each counter to maneuver as soon as each flip.
The issue with Each Unit Strikes is that you’re not truly making any tradeoffs, not deciding between your army and your infrastructure. It’s Weapons AND Butter. There isn’t a motive NOT to take an motion. This is among the predominant sources of the late-game slog in Civ video games – when you’ve constructed 100 models, then meaning you’ve gotten 100 choices to make every flip, and frequent choices are hardly ever fascinating ones. Certainly, employee automation has turn into a normal, anticipated characteristic in latter Civ video games as a result of gamers know that these fixed, low-stake choices turn into boring shortly. As a result of creating extra mines and farms has no value to the participant, there isn’t a motive NOT to take action. In fact, gamers don’t wish to need to do the busywork themselves – and it’s busywork as a result of these choices haven’t any value, no tradeoffs. Typically talking, anytime you must add automation to a recreation, it’s a crimson flag, time to guage whether or not the factor you’re automating is effectively designed.
This can be a slide from our unique pitch deck explaining how Orders would work. On the left you possibly can see Each Unit Strikes and on the precise you possibly can see the way it works with Outdated World. It’s as much as the participant to determine spend their Orders.
Orders didn’t come out of the blue. As a substitute, it got here from plenty of sources, together with some odd ones like Fb video games. Right here is Frontierville, by Brian Reynolds, the designer of Civ2, which took Farmville and added an Power mechanic that restricted the participant’s actions.
This was an odd little second in time, by the best way. Three former Civ designers, myself, Bruce Shelley, and Brian, had been all working for Zynga, and even Sid was making Civ for Fb.
Observe that the purpose of the Power system in Frontierville was to ration out progress (so that you don’t burn out on the sport) which creates friction and, thus, a possible microtransaction. I didn’t have any curiosity in that – certainly, I’d say I had anti-interest in it – however I did like the way it made you consider what to do together with your actions. All of a sudden, fascinating choices emerged!
Right here’s one other instance from that point interval – Hero Academy from Robotic Leisure. This recreation gave the participant 5 actions every flip which may very well be used for strikes or assaults nevertheless the participant wished. In actual fact, this recreation went even additional than Outdated World as models may assault a number of occasions per flip.
Not all wargames used Each Unit Strikes. Eric Lee Smith’s Civil Conflict recreation used an initiative mechanic the place you alternated strikes with the opposite aspect, which may let you transfer one military many, many hexes in a single season whereas different troops had been left in place. Coincidentally, this was the primary wargame I found as a baby, so I do really feel like its ruleset has all the time been behind my thoughts.
Employee placement video games are additionally an affect as they’re all about giving the participant plenty of choices however a restricted variety of actions. Selecting to do X means you possibly can’t do Y.
The factor all these techniques have in widespread is forcing the participant to decide on one factor and NOT to decide on one other. In different phrases, Weapons or Butter.
The Orders system was all the time a part of the design, and it gave me a motive to return to creating a Civ-like recreation as this one easy change would radically rework the sport. There have been many different new issues I wished to attempt, however this one change was the rationale to get began.
In fact, like all design, simply because you’ve gotten an concept, doesn’t imply you know the way to implement it. There are in all probability 100 methods to make an Orders system work. I do know as a result of I attempted 99 of them. Right here, within the very earliest, multiplayer-only, model of the sport, you possibly can truly purchase and promote orders freely, similar to the opposite sources. It was tremendous fascinating strategically however was maybe TOO fascinating because it warped the entire recreation in the direction of who may purchase essentially the most orders.
Listed below are a few of the completely different variations of the orders system we tried – one on a real-time clock, one the place you possibly can stockpile unused orders between turns, one with a tough cap, and so forth. We ultimately settled on a fatigue system the place most models may transfer thrice a flip however may transfer farther by way of a Pressured March which had a steep value.
Nonetheless, most of those different concepts didn’t get tossed away. As a substitute, we hid them away behind late-game legal guidelines – Coin Debasement unlocks shopping for Orders, for instance, and Elites unlock Stockpiling Orders. That’s a helpful trick when you ever attempt one thing which is fascinating however simply too highly effective. Don’t lower it instantly – as a substitute, shuffle it away to the late recreation the place it may possibly keep fascinating however uncommon.
I used to be apprehensive in regards to the ramifications of Orders for the AI however, in the long run, it labored out for the perfect as a result of it permits the AI to really assault on their very own initiative, as a substitute of coming on the participant slowly, turn-by-turn, permitting itself to get picked off. Multiplayer classes, alternatively, had been fascinating – victorious groups had been normally those who saved Orders for his or her financial system as roads grew to become massively essential with a view to make models extra Orders environment friendly.
The energy of the Orders system was the large risk house it created every flip as a result of there have been so many alternative methods to spend your Orders. This huge, typically intimidating, house led to the Undo characteristic which saved gamers from feeling overwhelmed – gamers may check out a number of methods to launch an assault after which simply change their thoughts and do one thing else.
It was initially meant simply to assist with misclicks however grew to become a pillar of the sport (and was superior for debugging too).
Certainly, undo turned out to be considered one of our hottest options – it was usually one of many 3 or 4 bullet factors listed within the professional column for critiques. It’s an unexplored space – plenty of video games like Invisible Inc and Into the Breach have experimented with restricted undos however we didn’t discover that crucial. Gamers respect having the ability to play the sport nevertheless they wish to play it. (It helps, after all, that now we have deterministic fight. Video games with plenty of output randomness wouldn’t be match for an undo button.)
Whereas we’re mentioning high quality of life options like Undo, I even have to say our assist system as our tooltips have tooltips. As is commonly the case with technique video games, the tooltips seek advice from one thing that you just want extra info on, which normally means taking a visit to the handbook or the wiki or the in-game encyclopedia. In Outdated World, you possibly can both middle-click or shift-click to…
…simply open up a brand new tooltip off of the earlier one. Now, we would wish to know what Rancher means, so we simply…
…open up one other tooltip. Hmm, I’m wondering what Civics are…
…and you’ll go so far as you need. We have now Infinite tooltips!
I undoubtedly wish to point out that the designer who pioneered infinite tooltips is Jon Shafer, who labored with me on Civ 4 and was the lead designer of Civ 5. Outdated World was the second recreation to implement them, and I count on them to turn into a normal conference for turn-based video games in coming years.
I wrote this line in a column entitled Water Finds a Crack again in 2011, and it’s now completely the most well-liked put up on my weblog. It’s kind of taken on a lifetime of its personal, displaying up in random movies and different GDC talks, and additionally it is tremendous relevant to ICS. What’s ICS, you may ask?
ICS means Infinite Metropolis Sprawl, the bane of Civ designers. Principally, gamers realized early on that essentially the most optimum solution to play was to squeeze as many cities onto the map as potential. Every iteration of the sport tried a unique technique to repair the difficulty: Civ 3 had Corruption, Civ 4 had Upkeep, Civ 5 had World Unhappiness, however all of them are unfun bandaids.
Apparently, this can be a solved drawback for house 4X video games – Grasp of Orion, historically thought of the primary house 4X, didn’t have this situation as a result of “cities” are equal to planets, so one metropolis per planet. Thus, a set variety of cities every recreation.
Infinite Legend and Humankind do one thing related with areas, slicing the board up into territories at first of the sport after which permitting just one metropolis per territory. We tried one thing like this with Civ 3, however I used to be unhappy with it as a result of I felt that your decisions ought to decide the borders between cities, not the designer’s hand earlier than the sport begins.
I discovered a center floor between restricted websites and dynamic development by placing preset metropolis websites on the map however then all of the border development after that might be decided by the participant’s actions. New borders would come from tile specialists and concrete enchancment. Thus, we rejected another piece of our inheritance as borders have all the time come, no less than since Civ 3, from a metropolis’s tradition.
Lastly, metropolis websites additionally gave us a pure place for tribal camps, which helps drive battle and ensures that the participant must steadiness enlargement with army and never simply spam settlers.
Civ 5 launched one unit per tile, a giant change for the sequence. Undoubtedly one other elephant within the room, though on this case not my elephant. At any charge, the recognition of Civ 5 and 6 meant that plenty of gamers would count on one unit per tile.
Debates rage over Civ4’s stacks-of-doom vs Civ5’s carpets-of-doom. Nonetheless, making a giant change to fight was wanted for Civ 5 as every iteration must shake issues up. Simply as Outdated World must justify its existence, every model of Civ does too.
We began with one unit per tile just because it was the best factor to code, however I assumed I had a intelligent resolution for a greater stacking system – merely put, the participant may stack models, but when that tile was ever attacked, every unit on that tile can be hit equally. Therefor, as a result of Outdated World has no counter-attacks, stacking a bunch of models on the identical tile can be very harmful. So, we had been naturally encouraging gamers to not stack their models, however they may very well be tempted to if stacking an additional unit on a tile received them a kill.
Nonetheless, earlier than finalizing something, we determined to attempt basic one unit per tile fight simply to see the way it felt, and surprisingly, it felt nice. It really works as a result of Outdated World doesn’t have counter-attacks like all the different Civ video games. Fight is actually cut up throughout a number of turns, with models buying and selling blows till one dies or retreat. Every separate assault is with out threat – solely the goal is broken. The Orders system made this crucial as a result of permitting defenders to break attackers is akin to giving them a free Order-less assault, and defenders nearly all the time have a bonus in most of these video games anyway.
Finally, nevertheless, I wished to reward attacking as a result of attacking is extra enjoyable. Pictured here’s a very uncommon model of Danger – solely 1000 copies had been ever made. It’s the one Rob Daviau labored on earlier than designing Danger Legacy, and it made one big, essential change to the sport.
It added aims, that are crucially essential since you win the sport not by conquering the world however by merely being the primary participant to attain 3 aims. They had been so essential to attain that they modified how folks would play the sport. As a substitute of enjoying defensively and turtling up in Australia, gamers would wish to go on offensives every flip to seize these aims, which go to the primary participant to attain them. You’ll overextend your self to attempt to truly management Asia simply since you wished that goal though you knew you’ll lose Asia the following flip. It made for a extra dynamic recreation as a result of attacking is enjoyable.
Typically talking, taking actions in video games is extra enjoyable than making it tougher for different gamers to take actions. Conservative counterplay is much less enjoyable for you, and it’s undoubtedly much less enjoyable to your opponent.
Civ gamers are used to beating the AI by permitting it to kill itself in opposition to your closely fortified models, so taking away counter-damage is a giant change, however once more, I wished to reward attacking as a result of attacking is extra enjoyable.
Nonetheless, permitting gamers to overload a fight entrance by way of stacking to get a kill took away the chance for the defender to counterattack, so one unit per tile was truly an important piece of the puzzle to creating our fight system work.
Actually, you must take a look at it holistically, because the three techniques help one another. The most important drawback with one unit per tile in Civ is that it results in visitors jams the place models clog up the tiles between cities.
Metropolis Websites alleviate this drawback as a result of we will implement a really excessive minimal distance between cities, a lot increased than in a Civ recreation. The Orders system, alternatively, ensures that models don’t block one another whereas shifting by means of tight passages as a result of each unit could make a number of strikes per flip if crucial. And, as I discussed, one unit per tile balances a few of the extremities of the Orders system by making it unattainable to kind stacks to kill a unit in a single flip, which removes the flexibility to counter-attack. So, the three techniques match collectively properly, buttressing each other.